Social Science And Race Sociology Essay
The social sciences are those sciences or scientific disciplines that deal with aspects of behavior and activities of humans, usually not studied in the natural sciences. Social scientists examine both the physical manifestations as intangible societies andindividuals.
In general, there is a reasonable agreement on what disciplines should be considered part of the social sciences and natural sciences, but the traditional division between the two is doubtful in the case of some. For example, although the language had been almost universally considered a social science, the modern approach initiated in the generative grammar of Noam Chomsky suggests that language is not so much social interaction but must be seen as a part of psychology evolutionary biology, as in the functioning of languages and temporal evolution of consciousness of the speakers or their psychological representations do not seem to play no role. For this reason, some authors have come to see that languages are a natural object that is generated spontaneously and not by deliberate human.
In general, without being excessively rigorous, the following disciplines have been considered by a large number of authors as examples of social science
Science related to social interaction:
Anthropology, History, Economy, Ethnography and Ethnology, and Sociology.
Science related to the human cognitive system: Language and Psychology.
Archaeology, depending on whether one considers the European or American tradition, archeology can be considered a discipline attached to history or anthropology respectively.
Science related to the evolution of societies: Demographics, History, and Human Ecology.
Applied Social Sciences, that try to organize or improve organizational processes or teaching:
Business Administration or Management, Library, Education, Planning, and International Relations.
Humanities. There are other disciplines, which are sometimes located as part of the humanities, but whose status is more controversial science, this group consists of:
Anthropology (Considered by some Universities in the Faculty of Humanities), Communication Sciences, Political Science, and Teaching, which are “teaching” of Social Sciences, Mathematics, Natural Science, Language and Literature: Law, Philosophy, Theology, Semiology, Legal Sociology, and Social Work.
Social science versus social studies. To be specific, a science is defined broadly by the scientific methodology used, which is two: the inductive and deductive. The inductive method is the methodology of the Natural and Social Sciences, being the deductive for mathematics. On this criterion, only the philosophy and theology would be part of the list of Humanities. In contrast, a study may be based on reasoning and observations but not strictly adhere to the scientific method, yet may be of interest, as stated in What are the social sciences?
Many of the social science disciplines have epistemological discussions about what is science. In the beginning was taken as a model of science to physics and other science experiments. However, time has identified the particular object of study, which is society, which does not fall within the methods and assumptions to study the natural sciences. In particular social systems does not generally permit the realization of certain experiments in controlled laboratory conditions and in other cases the predicted effects are qualitative and difficult to set quantitative limits for these predictions. An in-depth theoretical distinction is in the article: Theory of Human Sciences and in other epistemological approaches Critical Dictionary of the Social Sciences.
Between science and philosophy. Seeking social sciences, since its inception, reaching a truly scientific stage, achieving, is a certain independence from the prevailing method in philosophy. In this co-exist conflicting views on some aspect of reality, while in the exact sciences, this is not possible. Hence the humanistic branches of science should try to imitate, at least in this aspect, in the exact sciences, as stated in in Social science. William James expressed in the late nineteenth century: “A series of mere facts, small talk and bickering over opinions; parsimonious classifications and generalizations in a purely descriptive …. But not a single law as providing us with physical, not a single proposition which can be derived from any consequences causally… This is not science, it is only a science project”.
Remember that all science must establish objective descriptions based on observables, and therefore verifiable reality. The laws that have to consist of causal links between the variables, are involved in the description. In addition, knowledge should be organized in a way axiomatic, similar to the ethics established by Baruch Spinoza. Such an organization does not guarantee the accuracy of a description, but constitutes a prerequisite for the social sciences to acquire the scientific nature we all seek and yearn, as described in Social science.
Mario Bunge wrote “scientific researchers are expected to be guided by the scientific method, which reduces to the following sequence of steps: prior knowledge, problem, solution candidate (hypothesis, experimental design or technique), test, evaluationcandidate’s final review of either candidate to the solution, considering the procedure, prior knowledge and even the problem.” “Verification of the proposals is to test them for consistency and truth, which often proves to be only approximate. This test can be conceptual, empirical, or both. Nothing except the conventions and the mathematics, is considered exempt from the empirical evidence. Nor is there any science without them, or are absent any search and usage patterns.” “As I believe, the brief description above is valid for all sciences, regardless of differences of objects, special techniques or degrees of progress. It conforms to the social sciences such as sociology, as well as the biosocial, such as psychology, and natural sciences such as biology. If a discipline does not use the scientific method or do not seek or use regularities, proto, unscientific or pseudoscientific “.
Interdisciplinarity. At present there are critical to increasing specialization and low crosstalk between the social sciences. This would undermine a global analysis of society. Encyclopedia of Sociology, focuses on this issue: Sociology is very closely related to social psychology, with social history, with human geography, with the policy but should be more, if it is more related to cultural anthropology, human ecology with, with the demography, with urban planning, with the Estadisticay with philosophy. These relationships are not fully, but in parts or sections of each discipline. Sociology is the subject more open to other contributions from other social sciences and this is deducted from the collections of indices of citations in articles and books, as described in Social science.
The process is that in the border areas are being created hybrids and this is what gives coherence to the necessary interdependencies and benefits. The poor communication between disciplines is even more apparent among social scientists of different countries, mentioning only those of their cultural background, or your own country, mainly to the classics, when in fact the groups Latin American, European and Japanese, than group in American English literature.
Considering the Anthropology, where social science is described along with the race. We will review the race and its variations, differences and peculiarities all over the world. Race -is the system of human populations, characterized by the similarity of the complex inheritance of certain biological characteristics, with the outer phenotypic expression and formed in a particular geographic region. Features that characterize the different races, often appear as a result of adaptation to different environmental conditions, which took place over many generations. The criterion of distinction of race on the form is the absence of significant barriers to create fertile offspring, which leads to the formation of many transitional forms of miscegenation. The concept of “race” in general, more or less clearly perceived by different researchers, but in detail there are significant differences, different schools of anthropologists were isolated from four to seven major races and dozens of small anthropological types, as described in What is race?
The skull was discovered in 1795 in Georgia, launched Blumenbahom as a hypothesis about the origin of the Europeans from the Caucasus. Research considering the race – is the section of anthropology that studies the human race. The research of race examines the classification of races, the story of their formation and the factors of their occurrence, as the selective processes, isolation, confusion and migration, the influence of climatic conditions and the general geographical environment on racial grounds, as described in Are there really different races?
Race was particularly prevalent in the Nazi Germany and other Western European countries, as well as earlier in the USA (the Ku Klux Klan), which served as a justification for institutionalized racism, chauvinism and anti-Semitism. Sometimes research of the race issue is equated with ethnic anthropology. However, the latter is, strictly speaking, to study the racial composition of individual ethnic groups, that is, tribes, peoples, nations, and the origin of these communities.
In the part of racial studies, which focused on the study of ethnogenesis, Anthropology conducts research in conjunction with linguistics, history, archeology. In the study of the driving forces pf creation of race, anthropology comes into close contact with the genetics, physiology, zoogeography, climatology, general theory of speciation. Study of the races in anthropology is important for solving many problems. It is important to address the issue of ancestral modern human species, the use of anthropological material as a historical source, the coverage of systematics, mostly small systematic units, learning the laws of population genetics, to clarify certain issues of medical geography.
Denying the existence of races. In the middle of the XX century was originated the concept of unreality considered as infraspecific divisions of humanity. One of the first was formulated by the Belgian scientist J. Jernej, declaring the race is not a fact, and the concept.
In the recent decades, American and European anthropology forthright has a tendency to deny the reality of the existence of human races.
Division by race. There are many opinions about how many races can be distinguished within the species Homo sapiens. Existing points of view range from the hypothesis of two major racial trunks up to 15 independent hypothesis races. Between these extremes lies a wide range of hypotheses, postulating from 3 to 5 races trunks. It is worth noting that the races themselves (small race) are divided into subrasy, and there is no consensus regarding the affiliation of subras to certain races (small races). In addition, different anthropological schools use different names for the same races.
Typological concept of race historically comes first. According to the typological approach, describing the features of a particular person, can be clearly attributed it to a particular race: racial types are distinguished, and each individual is evaluated by the degree of approximation to this or that ‘pure’ type. For instance, the width of the lips and nose more than a certain size, combined with low head-pointer, a large protrusion of the face forward, type of skin and darker than a certain standard model is regarded as a sign of belonging to the Negroid race. This scheme can even determine the race of a particular person as a percentage. The complexity of the typological concept involves the separation of “pure” types, is distinctly different from one another. Depending on the number of types and attributes are defined as race, will vary, as well racial identification of the person. Moreover, the consistent application of strict typological principle leads to the fact that siblings can be attributed to different races.
Natural habitat Caucasians – from Europe to the Urals, North Africa, Southwest Asia and the Indian subcontinent. It includes the Nordic, Mediterranean, Alpine, East Baltic, and other subgroups. It differs from other races, especially the strong profiling individuals. The remaining symptoms vary widely. Natural habitat – Central, West and East Africa. Characteristic differences – curly hair, dark skin, dilated nostrils, thick lips, etc. Provided the eastern subgroup and western subgroup (Negro type, round-headed, middle-sized). Of special note is a group of Pygmies. Natural habitat pygmies – the western part of Central Africa. Growth from 144 to 150 cm for men, skin is light brown, curly hair, dark lips rather thin, large torso, arms and legs are short, the physical type can be classified as a special race. Possible number of pygmies can be from 40 to 200 thousand people.
Kapoidy (Bushmen, Khoisan race). Natural habitat – South Africa. Stunted, with infantile features. Are very short and with the curled hair. Skin yellowish-brown, not elastic – quickly wrinkles, droops fold over the pubis. Characterized steatopyga (mostly fat deposits on the buttocks), a strong lordosis. Special fold-century, prominent cheekbones and a yellowish skin attached to the Bushmen some resemblance to the Mongoloids. This occurred in parallel to adapt to life in similar conditions semi-desert.
Race east barrel are characterized by two differences: a greater evolutionary archaic (in particular, runs slowly universal human process of simplifying the teeth). This is due to the geographical features of eastern fire. The abundance of geographic barriers – the seas, mountains, great rivers, as well as the shelves are in a period of glaciation that were naked, then fired up, gave an advantage over migration groups.
Mongoloids. Originally inhabited by Eastern Eurasia, formed on the territory of modern Mongolia. Appearance reflects an adaptation to the conditions of deserts (the Gobi desert – one of the largest deserts in the world by area, located in Mongolia and northern China, the territory which is mainly inhabited by Mongolians). The main feature – is the eye protection from high insolation, dust, cold, etc. For this is a narrow slit eyelids, extra fold – epicanthus, darker iris, thick eyelashes, prominent cheekbones with cushions of fat, long (unless cut) lines and black hair. Identify two contrasting groups: the northern (solid, tall, fair-skinned, with a large face, low cranial vault) and southern (gracilis, short, swarthy, little face and high forehead). This contrast is caused by factors infantilizatsii in crowded southern regions. Young race – is about 12 thousand years.
American race – race, prevalent in North and South America. This race is characterized by straight black hair and an aquiline nose. Black eyes, wider than the Asian Mongoloids, but narrower than in Caucasians. Epicanthus are relatively rare in adults, although often in children, as stated in How race is lived in America.
Australoids (Australian-Oceanic race). Ancient race, which had a huge area bounded by the regions: the Indian subcontinent, Tasmania, Hawaii, Kurile Islands (that is, almost half the globe). Widely displaced and mixed with migrants. Includes groups: Polynesian, Melanesian, Australian, the Ainu. Extremely diverse race. Features of the exterior of indigenous Australians – a light brown skin tones, large nose, long wavy hair, burnable as tow a massive frontal bone, powerful jaws sharply distinguish them from African Negroids. However, among the Melanesians (Papuans) are frequently encountered spiral hair, which, along with the genetic proximity, indicates a slight influx of migrants from Africa.
Metis and migrants. As a result of intermarriage, there are mixed race. Mulatto – the result of combining the Negroid and Caucasian, Mestizo – Mongoloid and Caucasoid, and Sambo – Negroid, and Mongoloid. Moreover, there are entire nation, is now changing its race. For example, residents of Ethiopia and Somalia pass from Negroid to Caucasoid, and the inhabitants of Madagascar – from Mongolian to the Negro. Keep in mind that in the after- Columbian era, huge masses of people have left their natural habitats. Even in pre-Columbian era to the border, races formed metisnye transitional types – Ethiopian, Ainu, South Siberian and others. Active settlement and conquest of the Europeans stepped up the process of mixing and migration. In particular, almost all blacks are not pure Negroids, and mulattoes. To quell xenophobia, in such societies, the social organization promotes negative attitudes towards racial segregation, as described in Mixed-Race People Perceived as ‘More Attractive,’ UK Study Finds.
White people. Ancient mankind, is represented by early tropical populations of Homo (Homo habilis, Homo rudolfensis, Homo ergaster, etc.). Dark skin, hair and eyes were also migrants from Africa, giving rise core of the modern human species Homo sapiens. The loss of pigment occurred only on the outskirts of the area. The combination of light skin, hair and iris in pre-Columbian era was only a small fraction of Earth’s population, concentrated in the White Sea-Baltic “belt blonds.” However, the population of huge territories in North America and northern Eurasia has led to an increase in area and population of people of Caucasoid type. Currently, this population is again reduced due to lower fertility in white families, and mixing with the black population that bear the dominant genes.
Racial differences. Belonging to the form of Homo sapiens, people of every race are able to master all the achievements of culture. The most archaic (preserving the ancient characteristics of morphology) are Australoids. Each race in its own way is better suited for survival in a specific context: the Eskimos in arctic deserts and Nilotic peoples – in the savannahs. However, in an era of civilization, such opportunities appear from all races. Nevertheless, the facts relating to racial physiology continue to exert its influence on people’s lives.
The origin of races. Neanderthal, Neanderthal man – fossil species of humans that lived 300-24 thousand years ago. Neanderthals had an average height (about 165 cm) and a massive physique. Volume of the cranium (1400-1600 cm ? and above), they even surpassed the modern people. They are characterized by strong eyebrows, broad nose, and he is very small chin protrusion. By craniological indicators Neanderthals were dolichocephaly. There is an evidence that among them were red and white faced. Neanderthal genome showed that this species was not a direct ancestor of humans – their evolutionary lines diverged about 500.000 years ago. However, probably there were several episodes of interbreeding with Neanderthals Homo sapiens (in particular, about 50.000 years ago). The genes of Neanderthals were found only in representatives of non-African populations, so that interbreeding with Neanderthals could make some contribution to the formation of races.
Cro-Magnon. Cro-Magnons, the earliest representatives of modern humans in Europe and partly outside it, who lived 40-10 thousand years ago (Upper Paleolithic period), the possible ancestors of Caucasians. The Cro-Magnon was less massive than the Neanderthals. They were taller (up to 180-190 cm) and had extended “rain” (that is typical of modern tropical human populations), body proportions. They comparing to the skull with the skull of Neanderthals, had a higher and more rounded arch, more direct and smooth forehead, protruding chin (Neanderthal people had beveled chin). Cro-Magnon people type is characterized by low broad face, angular orbit, narrow, strongly protruding nose and a large brain (about 1600 cm ?).