Teaching Essays – E-Learning Students Education
E-Learning Students Education
Abstract: With the enormous spreading of e-learning over the last 15 years, quality of e-learning has been often criticized and tied up to poor provision. It has become important for higher education institutions to show the ability to provide high quality programmes. A variety of perspectives on what should be considered when evaluating the quality of e-learning. Some studies have addressed this topic from a more comprehensively view while other have looked at single perspective. This study aims at exploring this subject to develop a framework of critical factors necessary for the evaluation of quality in e-learning system, and to explore the relevancy and importance of the E-learning in Saudi Arabia. Accordingly, the literature of this topic was reviewed thoroughly to identify the factors that constitute the evaluation framework and 12 factors have been addressed. The empirical research was lying on a methodological quantitative approach where data was collected from learners in Saudi Arabia based from their experience in E-learning.
Nowadays, higher education is experiencing big challenges driven by many emerging trends, among which is the introduction of means of online learning. Accordingly, many universities all over the world are taking different moves to cope with the new requirements; some universities were established as purely online learning providers, other conventional universities launched new online programs, and some introduced online learning programmes to enhance some of their already existing programs.
E-Learning redefines the teaching/learning processes and the overall learning environment. It change the old university system to a new set of practices by introducing significant changes in the roles of its main key players; learners, faculty members and the institution as an entity (Mendenhall, 2001).
The change which e-learning brings to higher education accompanied by its vast spreading as an accepted learning delivery mode has been always questioned by its components who tie this type of learning to poor quality. Therefore, studying the different aspects of evaluating the quality of e-learning has been rising as an issue that worth researching and enhancing (Kistan, 2005; Wirth, 2005).
A big range of perspectives on what factors to address when evaluating the quality of e-learning has been developed. Nevertheless; most of those studies either addressed few factors to a single aspect or dimension (Ally, 2004) or addressed multiple aspects but without looking at the e-learning institution comprehensively (Cohen and Ellis, 2004).
In view of the lack of a holistic framework of factors to evaluate the quality of e-learning programs; this study aims hopefully at contributing to the body of knowledge in E-learning practice.
The main principle of this study is to evaluate the quality of e-learning through investigating the related critical factors that been identified by researchers and practitioners in this field. It also intends to study the importance of such framework in the e-learning practise in Saudi Arabia.
The study aims also at understanding how the key learners and faculty members differ in perceiving the importance of such factors on impacting the quality of an e-learning program?
The research intends to answer in broad perspective the following questions as well:
What are the factors which are affecting the quality of e-learning?
In this question the researcher are trying to address the quality factors which affecting the success of E-learning in Saudi Arabia based on 12 factors have been address from the literature.
How can we increase the e-learning practice in Saudi Arabia?
The second question are to know what is the best way to increase the number of E-learning practise in Saudi Arabia and what do the learner think based on their experience.
This dissertation includes six chapters in addition to its introduction. Below is a brief description of each:
Chapter two; outlining the background information of the research to puts the reader into the perspective of this study. The chapter includes a discussion of the emerging trends in higher education that have pushed for the introduction of e-learning and discusses broadly the quality issue in this type of learning.
Chapter three; covers the literature review of the e-learning, i.e. critical factors for evaluating the quality of e-learning programs. The chapter starts with identifying the distinctions between e-learning and traditional education, discusses in details the definition of the “Quality” concept in higher education generally and in e-learning in specific.
Chapter four; Cover the research methodology such as the process of data collection and analysis which will be used.
Chapter Five; we will be describing and analysing the data and presents the data gathered. Results of the analysis are then discussed.
Chapter six; this chapter summarizes the study, lay out the conclusion and ends up with recommendations for future research.
In this study the researcher are going to collect his data by quantitative method where a questionnaire will be designed based on the factors which have been discovered from the literature review and then will be sent to random group in Saudi Arabia. The Data later on will be analysis to show the result and the findings.
Saudi Arabia Background:
Saudi Arabia which is the birth place of Islam and home to Islam’s two holiest places in Mecca and Medina is located in the Middle East bordering the Arabian Gulf and the Red Sea. The king’s official title is the Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques. The modern Saudi State was founded in 1932. It is a large Middle Eastern nation that ranks as one of the world’s leading producers of petroleum, and exports more oil than any other nation. The government is monarchy type and the monarch is both the chief of state and head of government and administratively it is divided into 13 provinces and the constitution is governed according to Islamic Law. The country’s legal system is based on Sharia law and several secular codes have been introduced. Commercial disputes are handled by special committee.
Saudi Arabia has an oil based economy with strong government controls over major economic activities. It possesses more than 20% of the world’s proven petroleum reserves. It not only ranks as the largest exporter of petroleum, but also plays a leading role in OPEC. The petroleum sector accounts for roughly 75% of budget revenues, 45% of GDP, and 90% of export earnings. It is believed that about 40% of GDP comes from the private sector and roughly 5.5 million foreign employees play an important role in the Saudi economy, particularly in the oil and service sectors.
The researcher have carried this research in Saudi of same reason which we are going to describe them in details as
The access: as the research is a Saudi nationality and have good access to the people in Saudi Arabia where he can collect more information and find a good respond rate than carrying a research in any other place.
The Language: The research are multi language as he can speak Arabic Mother tongue and English so he will not face any problem to collect the data
The Information: The researcher understating the situation in Saudi Arabia so he can do good research and will not spend too much time to understand the situation and cultural factors.
The Organisation of the Education System in KSA
The education system in Saudi Arabia has five divisions. They are: kindergarten for children from three to six years old, elementary (6-11), intermediate (12-14), secondary level (15-18), and university level (typically 19-24, depending on the subjects studied, and the form of higher education). The secondary stage is the final phase of general education in the Kingdom. It is a three-year period, following on from the intermediate stage. Students are admitted to this stage if they have obtained the intermediate stage certificate. Normally students follow secondary stage education between the ages of 16 and 18 years. This stage is considered the most important period in the general education ladder because students who successfully complete this stage are eligible to join any higher education institution.
The administration of the education system in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is highly centralised. All educational policies are subject to government control and supervision by the Supreme Council of Education. Textbooks and teaching tools are uniform throughout the Kingdom. The four principal authorities responsible for education in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia are: the Ministry of Education; the General Presidency for Girls’ Education; the Ministry of Higher Education; and the General Organisation of Technical Education and Vocational Training.
In this chapter we have gave a sample overview about the research and what are the reason to carry this research as there are a lack in understand the practice of E-learning program in Saudi Arabia and the research are trying to develop a good understanding to this n the information of other study have carried in similar field ay of the Success factors of the quality for E-learning in Saudi Arabia. Also in this chapter we have describe the dissertation structure and the research question which are going to measure what are the main factors for the success of learning Quality. Finally the Saudi Background have been analyse to give the reader the information to understand where the study have carried on and why.
The main objective of this chapter is to put forward the point of view of this study by laying out its background information. The chapter starts with presenting the emerging trends in higher education that have lead to the introduction of e-learning. It then continues by explaining the quality issue associated with this type of learning. The chapter also includes an overview of the background information about the e-learning in Saudi Arabia.
Education An overview:
According to a recent publication by the UNESCO, the education sector in general comprised of all of it’s constitutes including the higher education is experiencing new trends that exert on it new pressures and challenges (Hernes, 2003).
Those trends are either classified under demography such as the continuing grow and increase of population, particularly young populations, migration between countries, increase of life expectancy, or are due to globalization where nations in general and learners in particular flow across borders without limits, allowing learners to have easy access to the best universities in the developed countries. Finally and perhaps the most important trend, is the knowledge growth accompanied by advanced information and communication technologies which have changed forever the way information is obtained, stored, used and displayed.
Despite the divide between one country to another, or within the same country, more knowledge development opportunities have been created. Information technologies offer the possibility of modularization and customization of education through the use and re-use of learning objects focusing on learners, possibility of engaging learners more than ever and therefore changing the role of the faculty from a teacher to a facilitator.
In response to the challenges described above, the growth of e-learning programme with its different modes in higher education is apparent and best reflected by the increasing number of e-colleges or e-universities, or the increasing number of higher education institutions that introduced e-learning programs and definitely by the growth of enrolment rate among learners.
A study of e-learning in the United States in 2005, suggested that e-learning is penetrating the higher education institutions both in size and breadth and that e-learning is part of the mainstream of higher education. Figures of the study showed that sixty-five percent of schools offering graduate face-to-face courses also offer graduate courses online. Sixty-three percent of schools offering undergraduate face-to-face courses also offer undergraduate courses online. Among all schools offering face-to-face Master’s degree programs, 44% also offer Master’s programs online. Among all schools offering face-to-face Business degree programs, 43% also offer online Business programs. The same study showed an increase of around 20% of learners’ enrolment rate compared to the previous year (Allen and Seaman 2005).
For different reasons, those statistics do not seem to be applicable to other countries. The USA is certainly the world’s largest provider of e-learning; however the market for e-learning and lifelong learning is also growing in Europe. Moreover, The Arab world, which represents 5 per cent of the world’s overall population, has entered the 21st century with a striking statistics which shows that it has only 0.5 per cent of the worlds Internet users, which obviously impacts number of its e-learning initiatives and enrolled learners in such type of learning systems (UNDP, 2002).
Using Computers in Learning:
These days, computers have become important educational tool kit. Many educational organizations and training centres rely on it to deliver information and learning knowledge. However, using computers in education has a long history and it has deep-rooted in the field. The idea of using computers in training first appeared during World War 2, in that the US military trained farmers to use weapons and other equipment via this systematic approach (Horton, 2000).
The first real use of the computer in educational organizations was seen in the 1960s, when the University of Illinois together with the Data Corporation, developed the PLATO system. PLATO is a system which enabled the learning and understanding of complex subjects. Apple’s Macintosh and Microsoft Windows operating system have since provided a standard platform on which programmers can develop training programs (Horton, 2000)
Definition of E-learning:
E-Learning refers to the employment of information and communication technologies to support the development and delivery of learning in academic and professional development institutions. E-Learning is used widely with other terms such as online learning, technology-mediated learning, web-based learning, computer-based learning, etc.
several definitions of e-learning has been developed reflecting the diversity in its application, used tools and associated technologies, whatever definition was used, the meaning of e-learning always contains two fundamental terms; Learning and Technology. In a way or another, all definitions of e-learning indicate the learning that takes place with the support of multimedia objects, the internet and technological applications as a delivery mode. One of the highly used definitions of e-learning as:
“Education via the Internet, network or standalone computer; it refers to using electronic applications and processes to learn, where communication device have been used and content is delivered via the Internet, intranet/extranet, audio or video, TV and CD-ROM, DVD etc as appropriate” (LTSN Generic Centre, 2004).
A latest definition that uses the terminology of E-learning higher education has been defined by Ally (2004) as:
“The access of the Internet to use learning material; to interact with the content, instructor, and other learners; and to obtain support during the learning process, in order to obtain knowledge, to construct personal meaning, and to develop from the learning experience”.
According to Horton (2000) “E-learning is defined as instruction delivered on a computer by way of CD-ROM, DVD, Internet, or intranet with the following features:
Includes content related to the learning objective.
Uses instructional methods such as example and practice to help the learner.
Uses media feature such as words and pictures to deliver the content and methods.
Builds new skill and knowledge linked to individual learning goals or to improve organizational performance”
Feature of E-learning:
Eaton (2001) outlines that e-learning is characterized with the following features:
Computer-mediated classrooms: faculty members and learners communicate through the computer means making face to face interaction less frequent;
Separation in time between communications: communication between faculty members and learners can be also in asynchronous modes;
Availability of services online: learners are not only provided by online learning experience but also with online services such as advising, registration, and library services.
Distinction between e-Learning and Conventional Education:
To understand the quality of e-learning requires full understanding of how this type of learning differs from the conventional style of education and the changes it brings to higher education institutions. This section presents in a broad perspective the distinctions between e-learning and traditional education which shape higher education nowadays. Such distinctions will be taken into consideration when materializing a definition for quality in e-learning, and deciding what to be taken into consideration for evaluating the quality of this type of learning.
The following areas were highly repeated in the literature as key distinctions between e-learning and traditional education:
McLaughlin and Oliver (2000) believe however that the new technologies have positive impact on the learning environment where more choices for forms of learning are provided to faculty and learners. This includes the delivery and presentation of content in more flexible and variety of modes, the provision of interactivity, engagement, communication, feedback, communication and collaboration tools. Weller (2000) sees that those types of new choices will facilitate the quick use of courses for easier customization and individualization resulting in more satisfied learners.
Change in Faculty Roles:
With the growing amount of knowledge and information every day, and the availability of an huge amount of content over the internet, faculty members will not continue to be seen as the source of knowledge, instead, according to Cashion and Palmieri (2002), faculty members are expected to direct learners where to find the most relevant knowledge and provide them with tools that teach them how to learn.
Different Types of Learners:
Oblinger and Oblinger (2005) have referred to young learners of today as the “Net Generation” who grew with familiarity with technological products and facilities. Internet access, computer and electronic games have been a daily activity of learners’ lives. Learner’s todays have different expectations with respect to their learning styles; they prefer to experience things instead of reading or hearing about them, they expect immediate response to questions or actions, they appreciate interactivity and dialogue (Pashuk, 2005). Learners of today consider themselves as customers who demand to be served high quality services. They have consumers’ attitudes towards their academic program and any of its services (Wager, 2005). E-Learning institutions should be arranged to different types of learners, not only in their preferences and expectations but also in their level of variety.
Change in Administrators’ Role:
Administrators of an academic institution are usually referred to as staffs who are not participating in direct teaching or research work, their role is usually to assure that the institution’s systems are running properly. Administrators are responsible to create, maintain and improve an environment that helps learners and faculty achieve their academic goals. Administrators of an e-learning institution can be involved in selecting, orienting and preparing qualified faculty for courses, administer and manage the technological facilities at the institution, provide different types of faculty and learners support from the technical helpdesk, library services, financial aid, etc. Administrators can also be involved in the planning, quality assurance, performance management of an activity to help the institution serve its learners better (Williams, 2003).
Reliance on Infrastructure:
Although e-Learning is basically about learning rather than about technology; the technological infrastructure of e-learning programs is still the critical and primary component of the education systems, e-Learning is characterized by its high independence on the validity, and reliability of its infrastructure which have the role of facilitating and providing accessibility of the learning/teaching process and its support services between faculty members and learners (Pashuk, 2005).
E-Learning institutions must set up their systems, policies and procedures to deal with issues like data security from both internal and external threats as well as copyrights from the learners, faculty and the institutional perspectives. Developing a high quality online course will not only require the intellectual contribution of faculty members, it rather involves other key team members from the same institution or from partnered institutions. Copyright issues are usually linked to revenue sharing models, especially when the course developers are contracted or granted any incentives (Mendenhall, 2001).
Advantages of using E-learning Methods.
As we know, traditional education requires effort, time and money that lead to some difficulties in achieving the goals of learning. On the other hand, e-learning contributes to the spread of knowledge among people around the globe by easy, fast and comfortable means that helps people to attain their personal learning objectives. As a result, several educational organisations have proceeded along the e-learning approach to facilitate and improve the process of learning. In this section, several advantages of using an e-learning approach will be discussed. The author has divided the advantages into two main categories, advantages for learners, and advantages for instructors.
Advantages for learners. According to Mayer (2003) he has conclude the common advantages that learners can gain from e-learning. The following list illustrates the main advantages for learners:
“Learners can get the best tuition available “
The extensive popularity of e-learning programme makes learning more flexible and gives freedom to learners to choose the best course which fit their needs.
Web-based and media training are available 24 hours a day and 7 days a week which allows learners to study when they need it without any conditions or constraints. They do not need to wait for tuition sessions or specified time to attend.
“Learners set the schedule”.
Learners can study at their own time and they can take as many lessons as they need depending on their time and their schedule. For example, some of them may wish to study full-time while others want to study a few hours a week.
“Learners get access to the instructor”.
Communication with the tutor(s) through web based e-learning systems can be more helpful than the traditional classroom approach.
“Training adapts the learner’s style”
Many different learning styles can be integrated within an e-learning environment and the learner is able to adapt his or her style or series of styles which they prefer and in the way they feel is most efficient.
“Learners get quick feedback”
There is no need to wait while for the results and degree of the course, the results can be obtained immediately.
“Learners treated more equally”
A degree of anonymity is ensuring, therefore personal characteristics are not considered.
“Saves time and money for learners”
Hidden costs are eliminated in that here are no travelling fees, parking charge, etc. It is also efficient for time in that almost all the time is used on learning and no time is wasted on travelling.
“ Produces positive effects”
Learners are constantly improving their other skills, such as computer skills, internet technologies and how they apply the skills in their jobs.
Advantages for Instructors, According to Mayer (2003) the most common advantages for instructors can gain from e-learning are:
“Tutors can teach anywhere”
Tutors are able to teach the course from any location. All they need is connection to the internet.
“Tutors travel less”
Almost all the time is spent on publishing, planning, designing, producing the courses with no time wasted on travelling to attend the class.
“Course can be dynamic”
Tutors have the opportunity to deal with course stuff at any time and in any place such as Office, home etc.
“Tutors save time”
Time spent in preparing the course material such as handouts, having course paper printed are eliminated.
In this chapter we have cover a wide range on academic study to understand this subject as starting with the definition of E-learning and what do we mean by E-learning, followed by another important part which is what are the deferent between E-learning and the Conventional education. Also the researcher has included brief explanation about the history of E-Learning and the feature of E-stand its practise.
Moreover, We can see based on the literature there are many advantage of E-learning for the learner for example he can study from anywhere and at any time which are the flexibility of E-learning and also there are an advantage for the instructor as he also can teach from any place and with flexible time schedule.
In order to understand what constitutes quality of e-learning and the critical factors that should be addressed when evaluating this type of learning; an understanding of the distinctions between e-learning and traditional education need to be attained. The first section of this chapter is dedicated therefore to explore what changes has been brought to higher education by e-learning. This chapter includes a review for the literature to explore what has been recognized by the researchers and practitioners of this field as key factors that affect the quality of e-learning programs and institutions and therefore should be used to evaluate this type of learning.
A list of highly rated and most repeated factors was then generated and categorized to form the basis for a comprehensive framework intended for evaluating quality of e-learning programs which will be used later in the empirical research.
Quality in E-learning:
Defining quality in e-learning and what should be considered when evaluating the quality of e-learning has been developed during the last 15 years. Despite the important contribution of each of those studies, a complete framework for evaluating the quality of e-learning couldn’t be addressed. Developed frameworks either describe the quality of e-learning program with an importance on the classroom environment only or overlooked some important aspects such as the impact of the institute on the quality of E-learning programs (Cashion and Palmieri, 2002).
E-Learning has been set by governing or accrediting bodies which have developed quality standards, principles or frameworks. Such standards however, were developed to help institutions plan for their E-learning (Cashion and Palmieri, 2002) or as a self assessment tools, so they usually address in general perspective academic standards, quality standards, standards of competence, organizational standards and service standards (Harvey, 1999).
According to Vlasceanu et al (2004), the definition of quality in a higher education institution differs with the changes in:
The interests and needs of a range of types of stakeholders.
The institution’s inputs, processes, outputs, purpose, mission and set of goals.
The kind and attributes of the academic world.
The historical involvement and development of higher education
Revisiting the changes that e-learning brought to higher education especially to the role of its fundamental stakeholders; learners, educators and administrators, it perhaps becomes logical when we look for a definition of Quality as a concept, to consider these stakeholders first. For this reason, a growing literature in the field of e-learning tends to define Quality of e-learning programs as the degree to which principal stakeholders? needs and expectations are consistently satisfied, referring to the learners and educators (Kistan, 2005).
Critical success factors (CSFs) are key areas of performance that are essential for the organisation to accomplish its mission (Rockart, 1979). Managers implicitly know and consider these key areas when they set goals and as they direct operational activities and tasks that are important to achieving goals. However, when these key areas of performance are made explicit, they provide a common point of reference for the entire organisation. Thus, any activity or initiative that the organisation undertakes must ensure consistently high performance in these key areas; otherwise, the organisation may not be able to achieve its goals and consequently may fail to accomplish its mission. The term “Critical Success Factor” has been adapted for many different uses. Familiarity with the term is often presented in the context of a project or an initiative. In this context, CSFs describe the underlying or guiding principles of an effort that must be regarded to ensure that it is successful.
The Clarity of course goals
Not surprisingly, there has been consensus in the literature that in order to assure the quality of the teaching/learning process; designing a course should start with explicit outcomes that identify the expectations from learners and faculty from the very beginning. Learning outcomes which usually drive the effectiveness assessment process of courses should be also challenging and linked directly to the institution overall goals and objectives. (Mayer et al 2000) faculty members have to adjust course content by selecting appropriate learning styles to achieve course goals and learners’ needs.